Objective.—: To investigate the association between plasma galectin-9 levels, proteinuria, tubulointerstitial lesions, and renal function in different CKD stages.
Results.—: To analyze the relationship between galectin-9 and clinical features, we divided the patients into 2 groups according to median plasma galectin-9 levels. The high galectin-9 group tended to be older, have decreased renal function, higher proteinuria, and greater interstitial fibrosis. After multivariable adjustment, elevated plasma galectin-9 levels were independently associated with stage 3b or higher CKD. An analysis of gene expression in the tubulointerstitial compartment in the biopsy samples showed a significant positive correlation between intrarenal galectin-9 mRNA expression and plasma galectin-9 levels. Immunohistochemistry confirmed increased galectin-9 expression in the renal interstitium of patients with advanced CKD, and most galectin-9-positive cells were macrophages, as determined by double-immunofluorescence staining. In vitro experiments showed that galectin-9 expression in macrophages was significantly increased after interferon-γ stimulation.
<p style="box-sizing: inherit; line-height: 1.5; margin: 1.2rem 0px; color: rgb(33, 33, 33); font-family: BlinkMacSystemFont, -apple-system, " segoe="" ui",="" roboto,="" oxygen,="" ubuntu,="" cantarell,="" "fira="" sans",="" "droid="" "helvetica="" neue",="" sans-serif;="" font-size:="" 16px;"="">Conclusions.—: Our findings suggest that plasma galectin-9 is a good biomarker for diagnosing advanced CKD.Journal Link 期刊連結