Investigators: Wen-Harn Pana, Ray-Yu Yangb, Meng-Tsan Chiangc, Sue-Joan Changd, Ching-Jang Huange, Bi-Fong Line
Research staff: Naihua Yeha, Wei-Hsuan Lina
aInstitute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
b Nutrition, AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center, Tainan, Taiwan
c Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Taipei, Taiwan
dDepartment of Life Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
eDepartment of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
Study period: 2014-2015
Funding: A grant from the Nutrilite Health Institute for phytonutrient analysis
A phytonutrient content table was created for 933 plant-based food items commonly consumed by Taiwanese participants of the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 2005-2008 (1). We combined phytonutrient data from databases of the Food Industry Research Development Institutes (FIRDI), Taiwan (2); USDA (3-5); and Korea (6); as well as those provided in the relevant literature (7-22). In addition, we sent 172 Taiwanese commonly consumed plant foods to AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center, Taiwan to examine their phytonutrient contents. This integrated Taiwanese phytonutrient database contains information on 10 phytonutrients (see below). Twenty four hour recall was used to obtain consumption data from 2908 adult participants. This database has been used to estimate Taiwanese phytonutrient status and comparison has been made with Americans and Koreans (23).
1. Obtaining existing databases
◎FIRDI food composition table (2)：data on α-carotene & β-carotene
◎USDA phytonutrient database (3-5): USA_caro.xls、USA_flav.mdb、USA_isoflav.mdb
◎Korean phytonutrient database (6)
2. Compiling food items consumed in NAHSIT 2005-2008 (7)
Data on 24-hour recall was used. We calculated frequency, average, maximum, and minimum weight for each food item.
3. Creating food-phytonutrient excel table
i. Priority of selecting phytonutrient data: FIRDI > AVRDC > Korean > USDA
ii. For EGCG: USDA + measurements from AVRDC
iii. We used the original data for foods with only physical changes due to such as grounding or freezing.
4. Literature search for phytonutrient content
Keyword search order
A. By genus name, species name, and phytonutrient name
B. By genus name and phytonutrient name
C. By phytonutrient name and vegetables
D. By phytonutrient name and fruits
E. By phytonutrient name only
5. Food classification with cluster analysis
Clustering foods with existing nutrient and phytonutrient data. The missing value may be filled with values from foods classified in the same group.
A. Preliminary Classification: Mushroom, onions, green leafy vegetable, red leafy vegetable, etc.
B. Clustering analysis was carried out within preliminary classification
6. Food analysis in AVRDC
AVRDC analyzed phytonutrient content for 172 foods with insufficient phytonutrient data. Detail methods have been described in previous reports (8-26).
A. Food list containing 172 food names and photos
B. AVRDC carried out chemical analysis in 2014 and 2015
C. Compiling data for Lutein+Zeaxanthin, integrating data from 6 anthocyanidins and 3 isoflavones
4. Phytonutrient data integration
Plant foods were organized in six food group: vegetables, fruits,
grains/cereals/root/tubers, soy/products, tea, and seeds/nuts.
Taiwan phytonutrient database.
1. Tu SH, Chen C, Hsieh YT, Chang HY, Yeh CJ, Lin YC, Pan WH. Design and sample characteristics of the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2011;20:225-37.
2. Food Industry Research and Development Institute. Available at http://www.firdi.org.tw. Accessed December 20, 2015.
3. USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, 3.0. Beltsville, MD: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Food Surveys Research Group, 2008.
4. USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods, Release 3.1. Beltsville, MD: US Department of Agriculture, 2013.
5. USDA Database for the Isoflavone Content of Selected Foods, Release 2.0. Beltsville, MD: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2008.
6. Lee HS, Cho YH, Park J, Shin HR, Sung MK. Dietary intake of phytonutrients in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption in Korea. J Acad Nutr Diet 2013;113:1194-9.
7. Tu SH, Chen C, Hsieh YT, Chang HY, Yeh CJ, Lin YC, Pan WH. Design and sample characteristics of the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2011;20:225-237 225.
8. Barros L, Falcão S, Baptista P, Freire C, Vilas-Boas M, Ferreira ICFR. Antioxidant activity of Agaricus sp. mushrooms by chemical, biochemical and electrochemical assays. Food Chemistry 2008;111:61-6.
9. Burns J, Fraser PD, Bramley PM. Identification and quantification of carotenoids, tocopherols and chlorophylls in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. Phytochemistry 2003;62:939-47.
10. Chukwumah Y, Walker L, Vogler B, Verghese M. Profiling of bioactive compounds in cultivars of runner and Valencia peanut market-types using liquid chromatography/APCI mass spectrometry. Food Chemistry 2012;132:525-31.
11. Franke AA, Custer LJ, Arakaki C, Murphy SP. Vitamin C and flavonoid levels of fruits and vegetables consumed in Hawaii. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 2004;17:1-35.
12. Isabelle M, Lee BL, Lim MT, Koh WP, Huang D, Ong CN. Antioxidant activity and profiles of common fruits in Singapore. Food Chemistry 2010;123:77-84.
13. Justesen U, Knuthsen P, Leth T. Quantitative analysis of flavonols, flavones, and flavanones in fruits, vegetables and beverages by high-performance liquid chromatography with photo-diode array and mass spectrometric detection. J Chromatogr A 1998;799:101-10.
14. Kornsteiner M, Wagner KH, Elmadfa I. Tocopherols and total phenolics in 10 different nut types. Food Chemistry 2006;98:381-7.
15. Lako J, Trenerry VC, Wahlqvist M, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Sotheeswaran S, Premier R. Phytochemical flavonols, carotenoids and the antioxidant properties of a wide selection of Fijian fruit, vegetables and other readily available foods. Food Chemistry 2007;101:1727-41.
16. Miean KH, Mohamed S. Flavonoid (Myricetin, Quercetin, Kaempferol, Luteolin, and Apigenin) Content of Edible Tropical Plants. Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, University Putra Malaysia, 2000.
17. Moo-Huchin VM, Estrada-Mota I, Estrada-Leon R, Cuevas-Glory L, Ortiz-Vazquez E, Vargas y Vargas Mde L, Betancur-Ancona D, Sauri-Duch E. Determination of some physicochemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico. Food Chem 2014;152:508-15.
18. Patil BS, Pike LM, Yoo KS. Variation in the quercetin content in different colored onions (Allium cepa L.). J Am Soc Hortic Sci 1995;120:909-13.
19. Pichaiyongvongdee S, Haruenkit R. Investigation of Limonoids, Flavanones, Total Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activity in Seven Thai Pummelo Cultivars. Kasetsart J (Nat Sci) 2009;43:458-66.
20. Pugliese A, Loizzo MR, Tundis R, O'Callaghan Y, Galvin K, Menichini F, O'Brien N. The effect of domestic processing on the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from chili peppers (Capsicum species). Food Chem 2013;141:2606-13.
21. Vuong QV, Hirun S, Phillips PA, Chuen TL, Bowyer MC, Goldsmith CD, Scarlett CJ. Fruit-derived phenolic compounds and pancreatic cancer: perspectives from Australian native fruits. J Ethnopharmacol 2014;152:227-42.
22. Wu X, Beecher GR, Holden JM, Haytowitz DB, Gebhardt SE, Prior RL. Concentrations of anthocyanins in common foods in the United States and estimation of normal consumption. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54:4069-75.
23. Zhang B, Hu Z, Zhang Y, Li Y, Zhou S, Chen G. A putative functional MYB transcription factor induced by low temperature regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple kale (Brassica Oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor). Plant Cell Rep 2012;31:281-9.
24. Pan WH, Yeh NH, Lin WH, Yang RY, Wu WC, Yeh WT, Sung MK, Lee HS, Chang SJ, Huang CJ, Lin BF, Chiang MT. Vegetable, fruit, and phytonutrient consumption patterns in Taiwan. JFDA 2017.
25. Hanson P, Yang R-y, Chang L-c, Ledesma L, Ledesma D. Carotenoids, ascorbic acid, minerals, and total glucosinolates in choysum (Brassica rapa cvg. parachinensis) and kailaan (B. oleraceae Alboglabra group) as affected by variety and wet and dry season production. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 2011;24:950-62.
26. Yang RY, Lin S, Kuo G. Content and distribution of flavonoids among 91 edible plant species. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2008;17 Suppl 1:275-9.