1992, PhD, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), USA
2020 ~ date, CEO, Emerging Infectious Disease Division (EIDD), Biomedical Translation Research Center (BioTReC), Academia Sinica
Understanding the neutralizing antibody (NAb) titer against COVID-19 over time is important to provide information for vaccine implementation. The longitudinal NAb titer over one year after SARS-CoV-2 infection is still unclear. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the duration of the neutralizing NAb titers in COVID-19 convalescents and factors associated with the titer positive duration.
A cohort study followed COVID-19 individuals diagnosed between 2020 and 2021 May 15th from the COVID-19 database from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. We analyzed NAb titers from convalescent SARS-CoV-2 individuals. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) and a Cox regression model to summarize the factors associated with NAb titers against COVID-19 decaying in the vaccine-free population.
A total of 203 convalescent subjects with 297 analytic samples were followed for a period of up to 588 days. Our study suggests that convalescent COVID-19 in individuals after more than a year and four months pertains to only 25% of positive titers. The GEE model indicates that longer follow-up duration was associated with a significantly lower NAb titer. The Cox regression model indicated the disease severity with advanced condition was associated with maintaining NAb titers (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.11–3.63) and that smoking was also associated with higher risk of negative NAb titers (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33–0.92).
Neutralizing antibody titers diminished after more than a year. The antibody titer response against SARS-CoV-2 in naturally convalescent individuals provides a reference for vaccinations.