1984, Ph.D. in Chemical Physics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
1979, B.S. in Chemistry, Royal Holloway College, London University
Divalent metal cations are essential cofactors for many enzyme functions. Although Mg2+ is the native cofactor in many enzymes such as ribonuclease H, its competitor Ca2+ may also bind to the enzyme but inhibit catalysis. Thus, the competition between Mg2+ and Ca2+ for a given metal-binding site in an enzyme and their effects on enzyme activity are of great interest. Most studies have focused on the interactions between Mg2+ or Ca2+ and the metal ligands in the first and sometimes second coordination shell.