1984, Ph.D. in Chemical Physics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
1979, B.S. in Chemistry, Royal Holloway College, London University
Monophosphate, an essential component of nucleic acids, as well as cell membranes and signaling molecules, is often bound to metal cations. Despite the biological importance of monophosphate-containing cell-signaling or lipid molecules, their propensity to bind the two most abundant cellular dications, Mg2+ and Ca2+, in a particular mode (inner/outer shell, mono/bidentate) is not well understood. Whether they prefer binding to Mg2+ than to Ca2+ and if they can outcompete the carboxylates of excitatory Asp/Glu and inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitters in binding to Mg2+/Ca2+ remain unclear. To address these questions, we modeled cyclic adenosine/guanosine monophosphate (cAMP/cGMP), nucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphate, phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PEA) and determined their most stable metal-binding modes, including those of Asp/Glu and GABA, as well as their selectivity for Mg2+/Ca2+ using density functional theory combined with the polarizable continuum model. The results obtained, which are consistent with the available experimental findings, reveal that the structurally and functionally diverse monophosphate-containing ligands studied prefer monodentate coordination of Mg2+ because of the greater strain encountered upon bidentate coordination, whereas the larger Ca2+ imposes less strain upon bidentate binding and has reduced/no preference for monodentate coordination. We further show that in a low-dielectric environment, negatively charged monophosphate-containing ligands favor the better charge-accepting dication, that is, Mg2+ rather than Ca2+. By promoting Mg2+ over Ca2+ binding, signaling monophosphates (cAMP/cGMP) do not entrap cellular Ca2+ and interfere with signal transduction processes employing Ca2+ as a second messenger. In regions with high glutamate cytoplasmic concentration, glutamate may sequester Mg2+ bound to isolated five-/six-membered ring phosphates, PI, or neutral PEA, but not anionic phospholipids constituting the inner leaflet of the cell membrane.